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The complications of concussion

Many people suffer concussion, which is a brain injury or brain “bruise” that occurs when the brain “jiggles” or “sloshes” rapidly within the skull from an injury. The injury may be direct, like your head striking the windshield in an automobile accident, or indirect, like the sudden jerk that occurs when your seatbelt tightens in a high-speed accident (over 20 mph). It also can occur when a brain “protected” by a helmet suddenly stops on impact, causing the brain to slosh up against the skull.

A bruise on the brain is very similar to any bruise you receive on the arms or legs from trauma. The difference is that it interrupts vital nerve circuits connecting various brain regions. The bruise will heal over days and weeks, but the nerve cell interruption may last for weeks, months or even years. In addition, the injury can trigger an immune response that further injures the brain, called “traumatic encephalopathy,” made famous in the movie “Concussion,” starring Will Smith and Alec Baldwin.

The main areas of the brain to be injured in concussions are the frontal lobes, which are involved in focus, tasking and organization — or so-called “executive function.” This is an acquired cause of attention deficit disorder. The other area often damaged is the temporal lobe, where emotions are processed. Often these patients suffer depression, rage and inability to control their emotions. An example of this tragedy is Aaron Hernandez, a famous NFL football player who murdered his best friend before eventually taking his own life. His autopsy revealed severe traumatic encephalopathy.

It is vital to protect the brain after a concussion, as subsequent concussions multiply the injury and markedly increase the risk for severe brain dysfunction.


You might be surprised. In order of frequency, they are bicycle falls, falls at home (usually elderly), skateboarding, soccer and football. Most of these happen due to lack of helmet protection.

Treatment is difficult. Avoiding inflammatory foods like sugary drinks, starches (wheat, corn, rice and potatoes) mixed with animal fats (pork, beef, dairy) is advised. Exercise reduces oxidative stress and aids healing if done cautiously. Vitamins that reduce oxidative stress such as fish oil, turmeric, and methionine may help. The most effective medicinal therapy is probably hyperbaric oxygen. This is expensive, and health insurance rarely pays for treatment. However, automobile insurance may cover selected cases in motor vehicle accidents. My office manager suffered a severe brain trauma and had miraculous improvement after hyperbaric oxygen treatment.

The brain is a delicate organ. It requires protection. Nature gave us a good skull to protect us, but humans did not evolve to crash our heads together in sport or achieve high speeds as seen in auto accidents.

If you know someone who experienced a concussion followed by changes in mood, behavior and concentration at work or academic performance, it could be the result of brain injury and should be examined in detail.


Dr. Stanford A. Owen practices in Gulfport, Mississippi and specializes in Attention Deficit Disorder. He is Certified in Internal Medicine, Nutrition, Psychopharmacology, and Hyperbaric Oxygen. You may contact Dr. Owen at 228-864-9669 or email at

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